William Holman Hunt Biography
William Holman Hunt (born 2 April 1827 – died 7 September 1910) was a British painter. Hunt was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
Hunt’s intended middle name was "Hobman", which he disliked intensely. Hunt chose to call himself Holman when he discovered that his middle name had been misspelled this way after a clerical error at his wedding at the church of Saint Mary the Virgin, Ewell. Though his surname is "Hunt" his fame in later life led to the inclusion of his middle name as part of his surname, in the hyphenated form "Holman-Hunt", by which his children were known.
After eventually entering the Royal Academy art schools, having initially been rejected, Hunt rebelled against the influence of its founder Sir Joshua Reynolds. Hunt formed the Pre-Raphaelite movement in 1848, after meeting the poet and artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Along with John Everett Millais they sought to revitalise art by emphasising the detailed observation of the natural world in a spirit of quasi-religious devotion to truth. This religious approach was influenced by the spiritual qualities of medieval art, in opposition to the alleged rationalism of the Renaissance embodied by Raphael.
Hunt paintings were not initially successful, and were widely attacked in the art press for their alleged clumsiness and ugliness. Hunt achieved some early note for his intensely naturalistic scene paintings of modern rural and urban life, such as The Hireling Shepherd and The Awakening Conscience.
However, it was with his with his religious paintings that Hunt became famous, initially The Light of the World (now in the chapel at Keble College, Oxford, with a later copy in St Paul’s Cathedral), which toured Britain and the United States.
After travelling to the Holy Land in search of accurate topographical and ethnographical material for further religious paintings Hunt painted The Scapegoat, The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple and The Shadow of Death, along with many landscapes of the region. Hunt also painted many paintings based on poems, such as Isabella and The Lady of Shalott.
All these paintings were notable for their great attention to detail, their hard vivid colour and their elaborate symbolism. These features were influenced by the writings of John Ruskin and Thomas Carlyle, according to whom the world itself should be read as a system of visual signs. For Hunt it was the duty of the artist to reveal the correspondence between sign and fact. Out of all the members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Hunt remained most true to their ideals throughout his career. Hunt eventually had to give up painting because failing eyesight meant that he could not get the level of quality that he wanted. His last major painting, The Lady of Shalott, was completed with the help of an assistant.
Hunt married twice. After a failed engagement to his model Annie Miller, he married Fanny Waugh, who later modelled for the figure of Isabella. When she died in childbirth in Italy Hunt sculpted her tomb up at Fiesole, having it brought down to the English Cemetery, beside the tomb of Elizabeth Barrett Browning. His second wife, Edith, was Fanny’s sister. At this time it was illegal in Britain to marry one’s deceased wife’s sister, so Hunt was forced to travel abroad to marry her. This led to a serious breach with other family members, notably his former Pre-Raphaelite colleague Thomas Woolner, who had married Fanny and Edith’s third sister Alice.